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Flag of India

India was under British rule in the 19th century. A series of flags with different designs were used in the period before the Indian Independence Movement by the rulers of various princely states, the idea of one India's flag was first raised by the rulers British India after the revolt of 1857 which led to the establishment of direct imperial rule. The first flag, whose design was based on western heraldic standards was similar to the flags of other British colonies such as Canada and Australia, the blue flag included the Union Jack in the upper left A Star of India, crowned by the royal crown in the center of the right half. To address the question of how the star passed "Indianness", Queen Victoria created a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India to honor the service to the empire by their Indian subjects. Subsequently, all states in India received flags with symbols based on the criteria of European heraldry.
Flag of British India, 18581947
In the twentieth century, around the coronation of Edward VII, began a discussion about the need for a heraldic symbol was representative of the Indian empire. William Coldstream, a British member of Service Indian Civil, a government campaign to change the heraldic symbol of a star, he considers a common option, to something more appropriate to bind the People for the Kingdom of Great Britain. His proposal was not well received by the government, Lord Curzon rejected for practical reasons, including the multiplication of the flags. Around this time, nationalist opinion in the domain was leading to a representation by religious tradition. The symbols included in vogue the Ganesha, Bal Gangadhar Tilak advocated, and Kali, advocated by Aurobindo Ghosh and Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. Another symbol was the cow, or Gau Mata (mother cow). However, all these symbols were Hindu-centric and did not suggest the unit with the Muslim population of India.
The partition of Bengal (1905) led to the introduction of a new flag of India which sought to unite the multitude of castes and races in the country. The Bande Mataram flag, part of the Swadeshi Movement against the British, consisting by Indian religious symbols on Western heraldic fashion. The tricolor with eight white lotuses in the top band in red represent the eight provinces, a sun and half moon in the green band representing the Hindus and Muslims in the population, respectively, and the slogan Bande Mataram in Hindi on the yellow band central. The flag was launched in Calcutta devoid of any ceremony and implementation has only been covered by newspapers. The flag was not covered in the contemporary governmental or political either, but was used in the annual session of Indian National Congress. A slightly modified version was later used by Mrs. Bhikaji Bed in the Second Socialist International held in Stuttgart. Despite the many uses of the flag, failed to generate enthusiasm among Indian nationalists.
Around the same time, a proposal for the flag was initiated by Sister Nivedita, a Hindu reformer and disciple of Swami Vivekananda. The flag consisted of a beam in the center and one hundred and eight lamps of oil to the border, with the division title Vande Mataram about lightning. It was presented at the meeting of Indian National Congress in 1906. Soon, many other proposals were launched, but none of them won the attention of the nationalist movement. In 1916, thirty Pingali Venkayya introduced new designs, in the form of a brochure funded by members of the High Court of Madras. These numerous proposals and recommendations did more than keep alive the movement's flag. The same year, Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak adopted a new flag as part of the Autonomy Movement. The flag includes the Union Jack in the upper left, a star and crescent in the upper right, and seven stars featured in diagonally from the bottom right on a red background, four and five alternating green bands. The flag led to the first government initiative against any national flag, as a magistrate in Coimbatore banned its use. The ban was followed by a public debate on the role and importance of a national flag.
flag of Gandhi, presented at the session of Congress in 1921
In the early 1920s, discussions national flag gained prominence in most of the British dominions after the peace treaty between Great Britain and Ireland. In November 1920, the Indian delegation the League of Nations wanted to use an Indian flag, and this made the British Indian government to a renewed emphasis on the flag as national symbol. In April 1921, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi wrote in his journal Young India on the need for an Indian flag, proposing a flag with the charkha or spinning wheel in the center. The idea the distaff was raised by Lala Hansraj, and because of Gandhi Venkayya to design a flag with the wheel on a red flag and green, red means more Hindus and green Muslims. Gandhi wanted the flag to be presented at the Congress session of 1921, but was not delivered on time, and a flag that was proposed at the meeting. Gandhi later wrote that the delay was fortuitous, since it allowed to realize that other religions were not represented, then added white to the colors of the flag, to represent all other religions. Soon, however, the Sikhs wanted the banner to include black and Gandhi was forced to address these issues in his writings and speeches. Finally, because religious and political sensitivity, in 1929, Gandhi moved towards a more secular interpretation of the colors flag, noting that the red was for the sacrifices of the people, white for purity and green for hope.
On April 13, 1923, during a procession by local volunteers in Nagpur Congress to commemorate the slaughter of Jallianwala Bagh, the Swaraj flag with the spinning wheel, designed by Venkayya, was hoisted. This event led to a confrontation between Congress and the police, after which five people were jailed. More than a hundred other demonstrators continued the procession of the flag after of a meeting. Later, in the first of May, Jamnalal Bajaj, Secretary of Congress Committee Nagpur, started Satyagraha Flag, drawing national attention and marks a significant point in moving the flag. The satyagraha, promoted nationally by Congress, has begun to create cracks within the organization in which Gandhi's followers are highly excited while the other group, the Swarajists, called it frivolous. Finally, at the All India Committee meeting Congress in July, at the insistence of Jawaharlal Nehru and Sarojini Naidu, Congress closed ranks and the movement of the flag was approved. The movement was managed by Sardar flag Vallabhbhai Patel with the idea of public processions and displays the flag for the common people. At the end of the movement, more than 1500 people had been arrested in all of India British. The Bombay Chronicle reported that the movement drew from various groups of society, including farmers, students, merchants, laborers and "staff national. "While moderate Muslim participation, the women's movement with enthusiasm, which until then had rarely participated in the independence movement.
The Swaraj flag, officially adopted by Congress in 1931
While stirring the flag has a momentum of Gandhi's writings and speeches, the movement political acceptance received after the incident in Nagpur. News reports, editorials and letters to the editor published in various magazines and newspapers of the time attest to the further development of a link between the flag and the nation. Soon, the concept of preserving the honor of the national flag became an integral component the fight for freedom. While Muslims were still wary of Swaraj flag, won acceptance among Muslim leaders of Congress and the Khilafat Movement as the national flag. Critics of the movement flag, including Motilal Nehru, soon hailed Swaraj flag as a symbol of national unity. Thus, the flag became a major structural component of the institution of India. In contrast to the subdued response of the past, the British Indian government took a greater understanding of the new flag, and began to define a policy response. The British Parliament discussed the public use of the flag, and based on the directives of England, the British Government of India threatened to withdraw funds from the municipalities and local governments that did not prevent the display of the flag Swaraj. The flag became the flag Swaraj Congress official meeting in 1931. But then, the flag had become the symbol of the independence movement.
India Flag, the first stamp of independent India, released on November 21, 1947, was intended for foreign correspondence.
A few days before India gained its freedom in August 1947, the Constituent Assembly was formed. To select a flag of independent India, on June 23, 1947, the Assembly established an ad hoc committee chaired by Rajendra Prasad and as Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Sarojini Naidu, C. Rajagopalachari, KM Munshi and BR Ambedkar as its members. On July 14, 1947, the committee recommended that the flag of the National Congress Be adopted as the Indian national flag of India with suitable modifications, to be acceptable to all parties and communities. It was also resolved that the flag background should have no community. The spinning wheel of Congress flag was replaced by Chakra (wheel) of the Lion Capital of Ashoka. According Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the chakra was chosen as representative of the dharma and the law. However, Nehru explained that the change was more practical, as opposed to the flag with the spinning wheel, this design seems symmetrical. Gandhi was not very happy about the change, but eventually turned to accept it. The flag was proposed by Nehru in the Constituent Assembly on July 22, 1947 as a horizontal tricolor of deep saffron, green light and dark in equal proportions, with the blue Ashoka wheel in the center of the band white. Nehru also presented two flags, one in Khadi silk and the other in Khadi cotton to the assembly. The resolution was approved unanimously. He served as the national flag the Dominion of India between August 15, 1947 January 26, 1950, and served as the flag of the Republic of India since then.
Design and Symbolism
The original sandstone sculpted Lion Capital of Ashoka preserved at Sarnath Museum. Chakra on the flag is derived from this ancient monument.
Gandhi was first proposed pavilion in the Indian National Congress in 1921. The flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya, a farmer from Machilipatnam. The original design included Gandhi was presented with two colors, Hindus red and green for the Muslims. In the center was a traditional spinning wheel, which symbolizes the goal of making Gandhi Indian manufacturing its own self clothing. The design was subsequently amended to include a white stripe in the center of other religious communities, and provide a basis for the wheel. Later, to avoid sectarian associations with the combination of colors, saffron, white and green were chosen for the three bands, representing the courage and sacrifice, peace and truth, and faith and chivalry, respectively.
A few days before India became independent in August 1947, the specially constituted Constituent Assembly decided that the flag of India must be acceptable to all parties and communities. A modified version of the flag Swaraj was elected, the PRI remains the same saffron, white and green. However, the charkha was replaced by the Ashoka Chakra on behalf of the eternal wheel of the law. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who later became the first Vice President of India, clarified the adopted flag and describes its importance as follows:
Bhagwan or saffron color denotes renunciation or disinterestedness. Our leaders should be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to their work. The white in the center is light, the path of truth to guide our conduct. The green shows our relation with (the ground), our relationship with the plant life here, in which all life depends on others. The "Ashoka Chakra" in the center of the target wheel is law of dharma. Truth or Satya, dharma or virtue must be the beginning of the control of persons who work under this flag. Once again, the wheel denotes motion. There is death in stagnation. There is life in movement. India must stop resisting change, move and move on. The wheel represents the dynamism of a peaceful change.
Manufacturing Process
Flag size
Length and width in millimeters
6300 4200
3600 2400
2700 1800
1800 1200
1350 900
900 600
450 300
225 150
150 100
The design and manufacturing process of the national flag is governed by three documents issued by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). All flags are made of fabric khadi silk or cotton. The standards were created in 1968 and updated in 2008. Nine standard sizes of the flag are determined by law, and the larger size (6.3 by 4.2 meters (21 feet 14 feet)) flown by the government of Maharashtra atop the Mantralaya building, the state administrative headquarters.
In 1951, after India became a republic, the Indian Standards Institute (Currently the BIS) released the first official flag specifications. These were revised in 1964 to conform to the metric system was adopted in India. Specifications have changed over the August 17, 1968. The specifications cover all the essential requirements of the manufacture of the Indian flag including sizes, dye color, chromatic values, brightness, hemp yarn and twine. The guidelines are covered by civil and criminal laws and flaws in the manufacturing process may result in penalties including fines and imprisonment. Khadi or hand-spun cloth is the only material allows the use of the flag, and a pavilion made of any other material is punishable by law with imprisonment of up to three years plus a fine. Raw materials for khadi are restricted to cotton, silk and wool. There are two types of khadi used: The first is the khadi-flags that make up the body of the flag, and the second is the khadi-duck, which is a beige color fabric that holds the flag the pole. The khadi-duck is an unconventional type of tissue that meshes three threads into a fabric, compared with the two tissues used in conventional materials. This type of tissue is extremely rare, and there are fewer than twenty weavers in India professing this skill. The guidelines also state that should not be exactly 150 threads per square centimeter four threads per stitch, and one square foot should weigh exactly 205 grams (7.2 ounces).
A header of a flag of India (size 6, dated 2007/2008) certified ISI.
The woven khadi is obtained from two handloom units in Dharwad and North Karnataka districts of Bagalkot. At present, Karnataka Khadi Sangha Gramodyoga Samyukta Hubli-based licensing is the only flag of the production and supply unit in India. The permit for the establishment of manufacturing units flag India is allotted by the Khadi Development and Village Industries Commission, although the BIS has the power to cancel the licenses of the units that violate the guidelines. The woven khadi Hand of the National Flag was originally manufactured in garages, a small village in Dharwad district. A center was established at Garage in 1954 by a few freedom fighters under the banner of Dharwad Taluk Kshetriya Seva Sangh and was licensed to make flags Center.
Once woven, the material is sent to the BIS laboratories for analysis. After quality testing, the material, if approved, is returned to the factory. Is separated into three lots are dyed of saffron, white and green. The Ashoka Chakra screen printing, stencil or duly embroidered on each side of the white cloth. Care must also ensure that the chakra is completely visible and synchronized on both sides. Three pieces of the required size, one color, stitched together according to the specifications and the final product is pressed and packed. The BPI then checks colors and only then can the flag of the sale.
Main article: Flag Code of India
Correct horizontal and vertical banner
Display and use of flags is governed by the Flag Code of India, 2002 (successor of India Flag Code, the original flag code), the emblems and Names (Prevention of Misuse) of 1950 and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971. Insulting the national flag, including severe or insults humiliation to it, as well as use in a manner so as to violate the provisions of the Flag Code, are punishable by law with imprisonment of up to three years or a fine, or both. Official regulation states that the flag should never touch the ground or water, or used as a curtain in any form. The flag can not be intentionally placed upside down, dipped in anything or have any other object that the petals of flowers before deployment. No font can be placed on the flag. When out in the open, the flag should always fly between sunrise and sunset, regardless of the weather. Before 2009, the flag may be flown in a public building night under special circumstances, currently, the citizens of India can fly the flag, even at night, subject to the restriction that the flag should be hoisted a mast height and well lit. The flag should never be depicted, displayed or flying backwards. Tradition also states that when draped vertically, the flag should not only be rotated 90 degrees, but in reverse too. One "reads" a flag like the pages of a book, from top to bottom and from left to right, and after rotation the results should be the same. It is considered an insult to the flag of a frayed or dirty state, and the same rule applies to the masts and halyards used to hoist the flag, which should always be in good repair.
The original flag code of India does not allow citizens to fly the flag national, except national holidays such as Independence Day or Republic Day. In 2001, Naveen Jindal, an industrialist used for more equitable use flag in the United States, where he studied, the Indian flag flew in his office building. The flag was confiscated and he was warned of criminal action. Jindal introduced a request for public interest litigation in the High Court of Delhi, tried to rescind the restriction on the use of the flag by individuals, arguing to hoist the national flag with due dignity and honor was his right as a citizen, and a way to express their love for the country. At the end of the appeals process, the case was heard by the Supreme Court of India, the court ruled in favor of Jindal, asking the Government of India to examine the issue. The Council of Ministers of the Union of India amended the Indian flag code with effect from January 26, 2002, allowing private citizens to raise the flag on any day of the year, subject to safeguard the dignity, honor and respect for the flag. It was also stated that the code was not a statute and code restrictions must be followed, too, the right to fly the flag is a limited, unlike the absolute rights guaranteed to citizens, and should be interpreted in the context of Article 19 of the Constitution of India. The original flag code also banned use of the flag on uniforms, suits and other garments. In July 2005 the Government of India amended the code to allow some forms of use. The amended code prohibits the use in the clothing below the waist and underwear, and prohibits embroidered pillow cases, handkerchiefs or other dress material.
Disposal of damaged flags is also included in the flag code. Damaged or dirty flags can not be stopped aside or disrespectfully destroyed, must be completely destroyed privately, preferably by burning or by any other method consistent with the dignity of flag.
Protocol for the placement of the Indian flag with the flag of another country
The rules regarding the correct methods to display the status flag that when two flags are fully spread out horizontally on the wall behind a podium, its cranes should be the one to the other with the saffron stripe to above. If the flag is displayed on a short mast, it should be mounted at an angle to the wall with the flag wrapped like it. If two national flags are displayed on crossed staffs, the forklift should be towards each other and the flags must be fully extended. The flag should never be used as a cloth to cover tables, lecterns, podiums or buildings, or be covered by bars. Whenever the flag is displayed indoors in halls at public meetings or gatherings of any kind, must always be right (observer's left) since it is the position of authority. So when the flag is displayed next to a speaker in the room or venue, should be placed on the right hand of the speaker. When shown elsewhere in the room, is due to the right of the audience. The flag should be displayed completely spread out with the saffron stripe at the top. If hung vertically on the wall behind the podium, the saffron band should be to the left of the spectators facing the flag with the cable lift at the top.
A procession flag
The flag, when carried in a procession or parade or with another flag or flags, should go to the right or just in the middle in the front. The flag can be a distinctive feature of the unveiling of a statue, monument or plaque, but should never be used as cover for the object. As a sign of respect for the flag, never should be tilted to a person or thing, as opposed to regimental colors, organizational or institutional flags that can be immersed in a sign of honor. During the ceremony hoisting or lowering the flag, or when the flag is passing in a parade or in review, all persons present should face the flag and standing at attention. The present uniform should render the proper greeting. When the flag is in a moving column, those present will be at attention or salute the flag as they pass. A dignitary may take the salute without a head dress. The flag salute will be followed by playing the national anthem.
The privilege of flying the flag domestic vehicles is restricted to the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, Governors and Lieutenant, Prime Ministers, Union Ministers, members Parliament and state legislatures, judges of the Supreme Court of India and High Courts, and officers of the rank flag of the Army, Navy and Air Force. The flag must be flown from a staff well-placed firmly at the center front or right front of the car. When a foreign dignitary travels in a vehicle provided by the government, the flag should be flown on the right side of the car, while the foreign country's flag be flown on the left side. The flag should be flown on the plane carrying the President, the Vice-President or the Prime Minister on a visit to a foreign country. Together with the National Flag, the flag of the country visited should also be flown, however, when the aircraft lands in countries en route, the national flags of the respective countries to be flown into place. In the development of the President India, aircraft display the flag on the side of President embarks or disembarks, the flag is flown like trains, but only when the train is stationary or approaching a railway station.
When the flag is flown in India in Indian Territory, together with other national flags, the general rule is that the flag of India should be the starting point for all the flags. When the flags are placed in a straight line, the flag to the right (observer's left front of the flag) is India's flag, followed by other national flags in alphabetical order. When placed in a circle, the flag of India is the first point and is followed by other flags in alphabetical order. In this placement, all flags should be approximately the same size or larger flag that India flag. Every national flag have moved from their own flag pole and should not be placed higher than another. Besides being the first flag, the flag of India also can be placed inside row or a circle in alphabetical order. When placed on poles crossed, the flag of India should be in front of the other flag, and right (observer's left) of the other flag. The only exception to the above rule is when you fly with the United Nations flag, which can be placed to the right of the Indian flag.
When the flag of India is shown with the non-national flags, including flags and banners for corporate advertising, the rules state that if the flags are on separate staffs, the flag of India should be in the middle, or farther to the left from the point of view of spectators, or more wide at least one flag of the other flags in the group. Your neck should be in front of the other poles in the group, but if you are on the same staff, which must be the highest flag. If the flag is carried in procession with other flags, should be ahead of the procession started, or if done with a row of flags in front line, should be taken right up to the procession.
At half-mast
The flag should be flown at half mast in mourning. The decision to do so rests with the President of India, also decide the period of mourning such. When the flag be flown at half mast, first you have to climb to the top of the mast and then slowly lowered to half mast. While reduction of the flag is first raised to the top of the post and then declined. Only the Indian flag is flown half-mast, all flags of others remain the normal height. The flag is flown at half mast across the country on the death of President, Vice-President, Prime Minister. Half-mast is deployed in New Delhi and the state of origin for the President of the Lok Sabha, the Judge of the Supreme Court, and Ministers of the Union. In the deaths of Governors, Lieutenant Governors and Chief Ministers, the flag is flown at half mast in the respective states and union territories. The Indian flag can not be flown at half mast in the republic, Independence Day, Gandhi Jayanthi, The National Week of anniversaries and state formation, except buildings housing the body of the deceased. However, even in these cases, the flag should be raised to full mast when the body moves from the building. Celebrations of State mourning the death of foreign dignitaries are governed by special instructions issued by the Ministry of Interior individual cases. However, in case of death of the Head of State or Head of Government of a foreign country, the Indian Mission accredited to that country may fly the national flag at half mast. On occasions of state, military funerals, central para-military forces, the flag will be draped over the casket or coffin with the saffron towards head of the coffin or casket. The flag was not lowered into the grave or burnt in the pyre.
See also
Portal India
Similar flags
List India Flags
^ The current flag is an adaptation of the original design Venkayya, but it is generally recognized as the designer of the flag.
^ Virmani 1999, p. 172
^ Roy 2006, p. 498
^ Virmani 1999, p. 173
^ Virmani 1999, p. 174
^ Virmani 1999, pp. 175 176
^ Roy 2006, pp. 498 499
^ Virmani 1999, pp. 176 177
^ Roy 2006, p. 504
^ Virmani 1999, pp. 177 178
^ Roy 2006, pp. 503 505
^ Virmani 1999 pp. 181 186
^ Roy 2006, p. 505
^ Virmani 1999, pp. 187 191
^ Roy 2006, p. 508
^ India postage stamps 19,471,988. (1989) branch of the Department Philately Post, India.
Sheet ^ memory of the series of stamps Independence, India Post, 1948
^ Abcdefghijk "Flag Code of India" 2002. Data Sheet. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. April 4, 2002. Retrieved on October 11 2006.
^ Jha 2008, pp. 106 107
Ab ^ Heimer, eljko (July 2, 2006). "India." Flags of the World. Retrieved October 11, 2006.
^ "Finally, Pingali Venkaiah set to get his" due time. July 30, 2009. Retrieved on December 11, 2009.
^ "Tribute to the flag of man '." August 10, 2007. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
^ "Flag of India." Encyclopdia Britannica. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 2009. Retrieved on July 2, 2009.
abcdefghijkl ^ "Flag Code of India." Ministry of Interior, Government of India. January 25, 2006. Retrieved October 11, 2006.
^ "Indian Standards" (PDF). Bureau of Indian Standards. Retrieved on November 29 2009.
^ Ganapati, Priya (25January 2002). "Dhanesh Bhatt: India's only licensed manufacturer Tricolor." Retrieved October 11, 2006.
Vattam ^ abc, Shyam Sundar (June 15, 2004). "Why are all national flags will be" Made in "Hubli. Deccan Herald. Retrieved on 22 May 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2006.
Aruna Abcd ^ Chandaraju (15/08/2004). "The City Flag." The Hindu. Retrieved on 02/10/2010.
^ Chandaraju, Aruna (August 15, 2004). "The city flag." The Hindu. Retrieved on February 17, 2010.
^ "The Prevention of insults to National Honour Act, 1971" (PDF). Ministry of Interior, Government of India. Retrieved on December 11, 2009.
^ Press Trust of India (December 24, 2009). "Now, the Indian tricolor could fly at night." The Times of India. Retrieved on February 10, 2010.
^ "My Flag, My Country." June 13, 2001. Retrieved November 15, 2007.
^ "Union of India v. Navin Jindal." Supreme Court of India. Retrieved on 24 December 2004. Retrieved on July 1, 2005.
^ "Sport tricolor, not below the belt." The Times of India., prtpage-1.cms. Retrieved on May 11, 2008.
Virmani, Arundhati (2008), a national flag for India. Rituals, nationalism and politics feeling, Delhi, Permanent Black, ISBN 81-7824-232-X
Virmani, Arundhati (August 1999), "National Symbols under colonial domination: the nationalization Indian flag, Marchugust 1923 ", Past and Present 164: 169 197, 651 278 JSTOR.
Roy, Srirupa (August 2006), "a symbol of freedom: The flag of India and the transformations of nationalism, 1906 ", Journal of Asian Studies 65 (3), ISSN 0021-9118, OCLC 37893507,
Jha, Sadan (October 25, 2008), "The Indian National Flag as a daily plebiscite," Economic and Political Weekly: 102 111, ISSN 0012-9976, OCLC 1567377.
"Indian Standards" (PDF). Bureau of Indian Standards. Retrieved on July 1, 2005.
"The India ". Flags of the World. Http:// Retrieved on June 30, 2005.
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Fly the tricolor real. " Retrieved July 1, 2005.
"My Flag, My Country." Retrieved on July 1, 2005.
Links External
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Flags of India
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Wikisource has original text related to this article:
India Flag Code
"National Flag". National Portal of India. Government of India. Retrieved on February 8, 2010.
"Flag Code of India." Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Retrieved February 8, 2010.
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